Bangkok: SEAMEO.Â, Tisinger, R.M. More money is being channelled into the sector as officials seek to build a 21st century education system to help push Myanmar into the ranks of the upper-middle-income nations by 2030. These are indicators of the fairly large dropout rate after the completion of the primary education cycle.Â,  In the higher education sub-sector, there are altogether 151 higher education institutions and these are administered by 13 different ministries. In response to student protests against the 1962 military coup, Burma’s government violently suppressed dissent and closed universities until they adopted the current government-sponsored curricula. This system is still in force with substantial modifications. The Deputy Minister for Basic Education oversees the Departments of Basic Education (1), (2) and  (3), Department of Education Planning and Training, Myanmar Board of Examinations and the Myanmar Education Research Bureau. Report of the International                          Â, Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (The Delors Report).Â, Delors, J. et al (1996). The British called the country “Burma” -- the country of the Bamars. Attempts in the past have been made in the past to increase the total years of schooling from eleven to twelve.Â, 26. EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Education and Literacy. Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools … Third, theological education in Myanmar should take seriously into account the significance of ‘dialogue’ with peoples of different faith traditions, especially the Buddhist faith. BORGEN Magazine is produced by The Borgen Project, an influential humanitarian organization working to make global poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy. However, significant challenges remain. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education. Claire Allen considers an education curriculum based on critical thinking.. This is attested by the popularity and the huge success of the courses offered by the Centres for Human Resource Development at the various universities, institutes, degree  colleges and colleges. Evolution of Educational Excellence: 25 YearsÂ, of Education in the Republic of Singapore  (Updated Version). However, the educational system was adversely affected by the coup d’états in 1962 and 1988, with academic spaces being targeted by the military to curb student protests and uprisings. Teachers, therefore, have great potential to act as agents of change. The students who can afford it have limited access to current textbooks, making education less effective. Ko Min Han Htet said that during the first term of the civilian government under the ruling National League for Demcoracy (NLD) and state Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the educations system remain as oppressive as it was under the British and Myanmar military rule. In addition a very short part of the Mekong River marks a small section of the border between Myanmar and Thailand, and also between Myanmar and Laos. Paris: UNESCO.Â, UNDP (1996).The Human Development Initiative (1996-98): Helping People to HelpÂ, Themselves. The remaining 10% are christians, Hindus and Muslims. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, v1 n1 p134-62 Jul 2000. (2003). Myanmar. Education System. Often these parents keep their children gainfully employed to supplement the family income or keep them at home to look after their younger siblings while both parents are away at work. Such parents do not realise the value of education. ‘The Development of University Education in Burma.’ Journal ofÂ, the Burma Research Society. From Asia, Thailand’s Thepsatri Rajabhat University and several South Korean universities have offered partnerships. It is just a broken education system," he added. Following the first Anglo-Myanmar War in 1824, Myanmar had to cede to the British - Rakhine,  Tanintharyi, Assam and Manipur. Yangon: Central Statistical Organization.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Yangon: Government PrintingÂ, Government of the Union of Myanmar. Yangon: Myanmar Education Research Bureau.Â, Ministry of Education. The second Myanmar Empire was established by King Bayintnaung in 1551. Other than working to shut schools down and to regulate what is taught in them, Burma has not spent much on its educational systems. Education and HumanÂ, Resources Sector Analysis: A Training Manual, Bangkok Chapter IV :15-19). Education in the early days  Education, since the early days, has  been highly regarded in Myanmar. The Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) Programme and the PostgraduateÂ, Diploma in Multimedia Arts (PGDMA) Programme were initiated in AY 1999-2000 andÂ, are conducted by the two Institutes of Education. Problems with the Myanmar Education System . The seminar was in the form of a power point presentation. Yangon:Â, Tin, H. (2000). It is the children of those parents who themselves did not have the opportunity of schooling and an education who miss out from the benefits of education. Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. Yangon:Â, Department of Higher Education (Lower Myanmar).Â, Ministry of Education. The Department of Basic Education (1) has the responsibility for the school system of Lower  Myanmar, the Department of Basic Education (2) has the responsibility for Upper Myanmar and the Department of Basic Education (3) has the responsibility for the Yangon metropolitan area. Myanmar is a Union of fourteen administrative areas - seven states and seven divisions. Community-based schools have a history of being closed by the government, which only serves to aggravate conflict between rebels and the Myanmar army. It has four major rivers the Ayeyarwady,  the Thanlwin, the Chindwin and the Sittaung. Yangon: Myanmar EducationalÂ, Tin, H. et al. Education System . The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. The lack of government support for schools makes it difficult for low- and even middle-income families to pay for education. By Susan Hayward and Matthew J. Walton July 29, 2016. viewing education and human resources development as a system Â, 42. In a response to a critical Burma Digest article, however, Aung Kyaw Soe (2006) claimed: Paris: UNESCO.Â, Department of Education. The ethic of giving, of sharing with the poor and the needy, of helping one another, is not confined to any one 6 religious community. Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the WorldÂ, Summit for Children: Through Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. These School Boards of Trustees have proved to be extremely effective and the parents have become more active stakeholders in the education process.Â, The largest group of stakeholders in  education are the students. Almost all countries of mainland Southeast Asia were affected. Myanmar’s Working Children in UrbanÂ, Informal Sector: Priority Issues and Action. (1995). These seminars enabled academics and educators to assess the current situation, to identify issues, to work out solutions and to formulate programmes for strengthening the education sector. Invariably the children of educated parents are assured of an education. XLVII,1.  II, 1. Soe Zeya Tun / Reuters. While basic education at public sector is free, tens of thousands of children are sent to work on farms and tea shops to support family income. General Information. In 1992, he was appointed Secretary-General of the UNESCO National Commission for Myanmar and served in that capacity till 2002. In a society which regards teachers as  one of the “five gems”, the Myanmar teacher is regarded to be on the same plane of reverence as the Buddha, the scriptures, the monks and parents. maintain cultural traditions and local customsÂ, !  Education Sector Study – Phase I (Final Report). Myanmar was no exception. The U.S. has increased aid to Burma to help create change; according to ForeignAssistance.gov, U.S. aid spending to Burma increased to $75.4 million in 2015 compared to $38.6 million in 2011. The EHR sector analysis process is composed of three stages:Â, ! Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and Prospects.Â, (Contributions to the work of the International Commission on Education forÂ, the Twenty-first Century chaired by Jacques Delors).  Learning: The Treasure Within. Tin, Han. Teachers themselves learn under the authoritative systems so they are usually resistive to current changes in teaching methods.  Education Sector Study – Phase II (Proposal forÂ, Education Sector Development Vols. Now, the new government of Myanmar has also made education reform a national priority. The monastery served as the centre of education and culture where all children could learn the 3 R’s. In modern Myanmar, there is a diffusion of races across all seven states and seven divisions. A man walks out from a destroyed mosque that was burnt down in recent violence at Thapyuchai village, outside of Thandwe, in the Rakhine state, October 3, 2013.  Keynote AddressÂ, delivered at the International Conference on Teacher Education. Education, and especially higher education, is often criticised in the press in Myanmar and there is no doubt that it encounters problems. Fourth, any theological education developed in Myanmar must be liberating and not oppressive in terms of its academic impacts. Before that he was Pro-rector and Professor of English at the University of Yangon. Education provides individuals with the opportunity to improve their lives, become successful members of their communities and actively contribute to national socio-economic development. Such a scenario is true of much of the poorer communities in a rural setting. Yangon.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Rangoon:  Government Printing Press.Â, Department of Labour & UNICEF. The Octennial Report on Education in Burma (1956) pointed out that Nicolo Mannuci, a Venetian who travelled in Myanmar about 1700 A.D. described the country “as a kingdom governed by the pen, for not a single person can go from one village into another without a paper or writing” (p1). This spirit of kinship and cohesion is stronger still in the villages of the rural areas. These seminars led to the introduction of ICT in the education sector and of providing the necessary facilities and infrastructure to sustain the use of ICT in education.Â, The structure for school education is 5-4-2 with five years of primary school education, four years of middle school education and two years of high school education. It also has a large reserve of renewable and non-renewable energy resources.Â, 5. Progress and Completion in Education . It completely emphasizes upon rote learning and memorization and regurgitation inhibiting students' creative thinking and critical thinking skills. The Deputy Minister for Higher Education oversees the Department of Higher Education (Lower Myanmar), the Department of Higher Education (Upper Myanmar), the Department of Myanmar Language Commission, and the  Universities Historical Research Centre. This spirit of sharing and community participation in the education sector has been characterised by the revitalized Parent Teacher Associations and the newly established School Boards of Trustees. But for most of the population, they are guided by Lord Buddha whose teachings emphasize love, compassion, non-violence and tolerance.Â, 16. There are 10 departments under the Ministry of Education. This is a trait of the Myanmar people irrespective of the religious beliefs they profess. The predominant religion in Myanmar is Theravada Buddhism, with about 90% of the population being Buddhists. The 10 departments are distributed between two Deputy Ministers.  : Myanmar’s educaon system is in a very weakened state.  There are altogether 455 e-Education Learning Centres throughout the country. For individuals, education raises self-esteem and furthers opportunities for employment and earnings. For these courses to continue to grow quality must be assured and the course conductors must be aware of the dynamics of a future-oriented society and all its manifestations. Professor Han Tin was also on the Steering Committee of the Education Sector Study for Myanmar which was undertaken by UNESCO/ UNDP and the Ministry of Education in 1990-93. (1993). Collection of Papers Delivered at theÂ, 1998 International Literacy Day Forum. Participation in Education. The University of Yangon and the University of Mandalay became arts and science universities and most of their faculties became professional institutes. Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education.  Paper submitted to UNESCO-PROAP. The high cost of education is borne by the different ministries. This is further highlighted by the disparity between the number of primary schools (35,159) and the number of middle schools (3,102). The University of Rangoon was shut down  during the Second World War. However, a proliferation of higher education institutions will bring in its wake problems of quality control and accreditation. Yangon: Myanmar EducationÂ, Ministry of Education. There are certain keyÂ, elements that help ensure the success of the effort:Â, ! Strengthening the Role and Contribution of Women Graduates inÂ, the Development Process. The tangible outputs of theÂ, sector analyses were attained in a similar fashion and are very similar in format.Â,  44.  Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute if Education.Â, Kwong, J.Y.S. Although primary education in Burma is meant to be free, the supplementary costs can add up to $100 annually, which is more than what many Burmese families earn. Social development, especially education is now reaching many of these areas which hitherto had remained unreached.Â, 9. Abstract: With the importance of education, globally, nationally, and provincially, rural teacher education is emerging an important field of study to promote a nation’s education development.This paper mainly thus focuses on the real situations of the challenges of qualified teacher education encountering in rural areas in Myanmar. Part of the reason why minority groups in Burma do not have strong educational programs is because the government wants to control what is taught. That education or rather formal schooling is a preparation for life was introduced into Myanmar with the coming of the British. UNESCO’s Policy and Sector Analysis  Division has now assisted more thanÂ, twelve countries in Asia, Africa and  Latin America to conduct EHR sectorÂ, 43. According to the Oxford-Burma Alliance, an advocacy group in support for Burmese democratic reform, parents must pay for transportation to schools and additional fees to help the schools buy textbooks and desks. In addition, protracted conflicts and emergencies are … In recent years, many reforms in education have been undertaken in Myanmar. Yangon:Â, James, H. (2003). (see UNESCO PrincipalÂ, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1996. He has participated in many regional meetings of UNESCO and also attended a number of General Conferences in Paris. The population of Myanmar has been estimated at over 50 million with only 26.6% of its population living in urban areas. School closures in Myanmar resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have affected millions of students. This thrust consists ofÂ, • providing computer access in schools and higher education institutionsÂ, • setting up a network of e-learning centers, e-resource centers, and computerÂ, • establishing an electronic data broadcasting system for the education networkÂ, • introducing wireless link video conferencingÂ, • creating a fibre optic network system for linkage among departments andÂ,  Teacher training in basic education sub-sector is provided using a two-pronged approachÂ, - in-service teacher training programmes and pre-service teacher training programmes.Â, Pre-service as well as in-service teacher training programmes are provided by 2 InstitutesÂ, of Education and 20 Colleges of Education. Human Resource Development  and Nation Building inÂ, Myanmar.  Education for All (Myanmar’s Country Report submitted to EFAÂ, Experts Meeting, Jomtien). 24. Two years later, this Government High School was upgraded and became University College, Rangoon. Equality Myanmar core initiatives currently include: He comes from Myanmar. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. They are spread among the seven divisions. European colonial aspiration and expansion changed the course of history in Asia. Education and Human Resources (EHR) Sector Aanalysis,        Education and Human Resources (EHR) sector analysis was widely used in theÂ, late 1980s by donor agencies such as World Bank and USAID. According to a 2007 Myanmar Times special issue on education, the government established a 30-year education development plan in 2001–02 in order to develop a ‘learned society’ for the knowledge age, with the expansion of schools as a priority. Claire Allen considers an education curriculum based on critical thinking. The Second World War also wreaked destruction as Myanmar became a major battlefield. The roles played by the stakeholders in education were highlighted – for the success or failure of the whole education process depends on the interaction and the changing roles they (the stakeholders) play or are assigned to by the society in which they live. 11,  Delors, J. et al (1996). Myanmar’s education reform began in 2011 when the country’s government system changed from a military government to a democracy. The Ayeyarwady is the longest river in Myanmar. Myanmar's Religious Problem How to Deal With Discrimination. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Yunan Province in the People’s Republic of China. Â, 15. The whole country was annexed to the British Empire in 1885 after the third Anglo-Myanmar War. Pad problem: education seen as solution to public nuisance There was bloody trash again in the rear of her apartment in the little garden where she grew her beautiful plants, so she would have to speak up about it this time. However, Myanmar became a unified nation during the reign of King Anawrahta (1044-1072 A.D) when the first Myanmar Empire was established and the Bagan dynasty began. It was in 1824, that the first Anglo-Myanmar War was fought. & Sim, W.K. Culture. The first Government high school was founded by the British colonial administration in 1874. The Rohingya crisis is also an education crisis, as tens of thousands of refugees remain unable to access schooling in their temporary homes. The village then was  a self-contained agricultural unit of community life. There are eleven years of education. This is in keeping with the  policy of providing equitable education throughout the Union. This prevents many minority students from getting the education they need to lift themselves out of poverty. EHR Sector Analysis experiences in Myanmar and Viet Nam are presented hereÂ, because in both countries the studies were initiated at approximately the sameÂ, time. Browse by country. They are traditionally regarded as community leaders in rural as well as urban communities; but more so in rural ones. Since 2000, an effective ICT infrastructure is being established for the basic education sub-sector as well as the higher education sub-sector. A: Personally, a surprising discovery about education in Myanmar is that there is a lot of information existing. Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools updated.     4. In its place were set up numerous professional institutes, arts and 5 science universities, degree colleges  and colleges. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. Local community schools run by minority teachers are often shut down because the state wants to enforce its curriculum and promote national unity. This is part one of a five-part post by Monash University students from a two-week study tour to Myanmar. The functions of the departments under Basic Education are coordinated by the Basic Education Council, the Basic Education Curriculum, Syllabus and Textbook Committee, and the Teacher Education Supervisory Committee.Â. Myanmar secondary education has numerous problems.  Endeavours in the Higher Education Sub-Sector:Â, Education Promotion Programmes and Plans (1997-2002). The eight key issues identified for development of the education sector in Myanmar are: redefining the role of primary education strengthening curriculum development to meet changing needs creating a fair and efficient selection system There are approximately 7.5 million students (out of a total population of over 50 million) from all levels of education. With democratic reforms starting to be enacted in Burma, the country’s leaders have the opportunity to make sure all citizens have access to rights like healthcare, political representation and education. According to Arohana, Thabyay Education Network: “Despite the high value placed on education in Myanmar culture, the state education system has long been in decline, suffering from a critical lack of resources and skills. Three phases - diagnosis, strategyÂ, development and action Planning - was the same time, foreign spending... 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